CHAPTER I (Section 3-9) - COMMUNICATION, ACCEPTANCE AND REVOCATION OF PROPOSALS

CHAPTER I of Indian Contract Act

OF THE COMMUNICATION, ACCEPTANCE AND REVOCATION OF PROPOSALS

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3. Communication, acceptance and revocation of proposals.

The communication of proposals, the acceptance of proposals, and the revocation of proposals and acceptance, respectively, are deemed to be made by any act or omission of the party proposing, accepting or revoking, by which he intends to communicated such proposal, acceptance or revocation, or which has the effect of communicating it. 

4. Communication when complete.

The communication of a proposal is complete when it becomes to the knowledge of the person to whom it is made. 

The communication of an acceptance is complete-
as against the proposer, when it is put in a course of transmission to him so at to be out of the power of the acceptor;
as against the acceptor, when it comes to the knowledge of the proposer. 

The communication of a revocation is complete-
as against the person who makes it, when it is put into a course of transmission to the person to whom it is made, so as to be out of the power of the person who makes it;
as against the person to whom it is made, when it comes to his knowledge.

Illustrations-
(a) A proposes, by letter, to sell a house to B at a certain price.
The communication of the proposal is complete when B receives the letter.

(b) B accepts A’ s proposal by a letter sent by post.
The communication of the acceptance is complete-
as against A when the letter is posted;
as against B, when the letter is received by A.

(c) A revokes his proposal by telegram.
The revocation is complete as against A when the telegram is dispatched. It is complete as against B when B receives it.

B revokes his acceptance by telegram.
B’s revocation is complete as against B when the telegram is dispatched, and as against A when it reaches him.

5. Revocation of Proposals and acceptance.

A proposal may be revoked at any time before the communication of its acceptance is complete as against the proposer, but not afterwards. 

An acceptance may be revoked at any time before the communication of the acceptance is complete as against the acceptor, but no afterwards.

Illustration-
A proposes, by a letter sent by post, to sell his house to B. B accepts the proposal by a letter sent by post. A may revoke his proposal at any time before or at the moment when B posts his letter of acceptance, but not afterwards. B may revoke his acceptance at any time before or at the moment when the letter communicating it reaches A, but not afterwards.

6. Revocation how made.

A proposal is revoked-
(1) by the communication of notice of revocation by the proposer to the other party;
(2) by the lapse of the time prescribed in such proposal for its acceptance, or, if no time is so prescribed, by the lapse of a reasonable time, without communication of the acceptance;
(3) by the failure of the acceptor to fulfil a condition precedent to acceptance; or
(4) by the death or insanity of the proposer, if the fact of the death or insanity comes to the knowledge of the acceptor before acceptance. 

7. Acceptance must be absolute.

In order to convert a proposal into a promise the acceptance must-
(1) be absolute and unqualified.
(2) be expressed in some usual and reasonable manner, unless the proposal prescribes the manner in which it is to be accepted. If the proposal prescribes a manner in which it is to be accepted;
and the acceptance is not made in such manner, the proposer may, within a reasonable time after the acceptance is communicated to him, insist that his proposal shall be accepted in the prescribed manner, and not otherwise; but; if he fails to do so, he accepts the acceptance. 

8. Acceptance by performing conditions, or receiving consideration.

Performance of the conditions of proposal, for the acceptance of any consideration for a reciprocal promise which may be offered with a proposal, is an acceptance of the proposal. 

9. Promise, express and implied.

In so far as the proposal or acceptance of any promise is made in words, the promise is said to be express. In so far as such proposal or acceptance is made otherwise than in words, the promise is said to be implied.

Next,
CHAPTER II (10-30) – CONTRACTS, VOIDABLE CONTRACTS, VOID AGREEMENTS

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