Adjudication of claims and objections.
58. Adjudication of claims to, or objections to attachment of, property.
(1) Where any claim is preferred to, or any objection is made to the attachment of, any property attached in execution of a decree on the ground that such property is not liable to such attachment, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the claim or objection in accordance with the provisions herein contained:
Provided that no such claim or objection shall be entertained-
(a) where, before the claim is preferred or objection is made, the property attached has already been sold; or (b) where the Court considers that the claim or objection was designedly or unnecessarily delayed.
(2) All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property attached) arising between the parties to a proceeding or their representatives under this rule and relevant to the adjudication of the claim or objection, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the claim or objection and not by a separate suit.
(3) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in sub-rule (2), the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,-
(a) allow the claim or objection and release the property from attachment either wholly or to such extent as it thinks fit; or
(b) disallow the claim or objection; or
(c) continue the attachment subject to any mortgage, charge or other interest in favour of any person; or
(d) pass such order as in the circumstances of the case it deems fit.
(4) Where any claim or objection has been adjudicated upon under this rule, the order made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
(5) Where a claim or an objection is preferred and the Court, under the proviso to sub-rule (1), refuses to entertain it, the party against whom such order is made may institute a suit to establish the right which he claims to the property in dispute; but, subject to the result of such suit, if any, an order so refusing to entertain the claims or objection shall be conclusive.
59. Stay of sale.
Where before the claim was preferred or the objection was made, the property attached had already been advertised for sale, the Court may-
(a) if the property is movable, make an order postponing the sale pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, or
(b) if the property is immovable, make an order that, pending the adjudication of the claim or objection, the property shall not be sold, or, that pending such adjudication, the property may be sold but the sale shall not be confirmed,
and any such order may be made subject to such terms and conditions as to security or otherwise as the Court thinks fit.
60 to 63. [Omitted]
64. Power to order property attached to be sold and proceeds to be paid to person entitled.
Any Court executing a decree may order that any property attached by it and liable to sale, or such portion thereof as may see necessary to satisfy the decree, shall be sold, and that the proceeds of such sale, or a sufficient portion thereof, shall be paid to the party entitled under the decree to receive the same.
65. Sales by whom conducted and how made.
Save as otherwise prescribed, every sale in execution of a decree shall be conducted by an officer of the Court or by such other person as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be made by public auction in manner prescribed.
66. Proclamation of sales by public auction.
(1) Where any property is ordered to be sold by public auction in execution of a decree, the Court shall cause a proclamation of the intended sale to be made in the language of such Court.
(2) Such proclamation shall be draw up after notice to the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor and shall state the time and place of sale, and specify as fairly and accurately as possible-
(a) the property to be sold or, where a part of the property would be sufficient to satisfy the decree, such part;
(b) the revenue assessed upon the estate, where the property to be sold is an interest in an estate or in part of an estate paying revenue to the Government;
(c) any incumbrance to which the property is liable;
(d) the amount for the recovery of which the sale is ordered; and
(e) every other thing which the Court considers material for a purchaser to know in order to judge of the nature and value of the property:
Provided that where notice of the date for settling the terms of the proclamation has been given to the judgement-debtor by means of an order under rule 54, it shall not be necessary to give notice under this rule to the judgment-debtor unless the Court otherwise directs:
Provided further that nothing in this rule shall be construed as requiring the Court to enter in the proclamation of sale its own estimate of the value of the property, but the proclamation shall include the estimate if any, given, by either or both of the parties.
(3) Every application for an order for sale under this rule shall be accompanied by a statement signed and verified in the manner hereinbefore prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings and containing, so far as they are known to or can be ascertained by the person making the verification, the matters required by sub-rule (2) to be specified in the proclamation.
(4) For the purpose of ascertaining the matters to be specified in the proclamation, the Court may summon any person whom it thinks necessary to summon and may examine him in respect to any such matters and require him to produce any document in his possession or power relating thereto.
67. Mode of making proclamation.
(1) Every proclamation shall be made and published, as nearly as may be, in the manner prescribed by rule 54, sub-rule (2).
(2) Where the Court so directs, such proclamation shall also be published in the Official Gazette or in a local newspaper, or in both, and the costs of such publication shall be deemed to be costs of the sale.
(3) Where property is divided into lots for the purpose of being sold separately, it shall not be necessary to make a separate proclamation for each lot, unless proper notice of the sale cannot, in the opinion of the Court, otherwise be given.
68. Time of sale.
Save in the case of property of the kind described in the proviso to rule 43, no sale hereunder shall, without the consent in writing of the judgment-debtor, take place until after the expiration of at least fifteen days in the case of immovable property, and of at least seven days in the case of movable property, calculated from the date on which the copy of the proclamation has been affixed on the court-house of the Judge ordering the sale.
69. Adjournment or stoppage of sale.
(1) The Court may, in its discretion, adjourn any sale hereunder to a specified day and hour, and the officer conducting any such sale may in his discretion adjourn the sale, recording his reasons for such adjournment:
Provided that, where the sale is made in, or within the precincts of, the court-house, no such adjournment shall be made without the leave of the Court.
(2) Where a sale is adjourned under sub-rule (1) or a longer period than thirty days a fresh proclamation under rule 67 shall be made, unless the judgment-debtor consents to waive it.
(3) Every sale be stopped if, before the lot is knocked down, the debt and costs (including the costs of the sale) are tendered to the officer conducting the sale, or proof is given to his satisfaction that the amount of such debt and costs has been paid into the Court which ordered the sale.
70. [Saving of certain sales.]
Rep. by the Code of Civil Procedure (Amendment) Act, 1956 (66 of 1956), s. 14.
71. Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale.
Any deficiency of price which may happen on a re-sale by reason of the purchaser’s default, and all expenses attending such re-sale, shall be certified to the Court by the officer or other person holding the sale, and shall, at the instance of either the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor, be recoverable from the defaulting purchaser under the provisions relating to the execution of a decree for the payment of money.
72. Decree holder not to bid for or buy property without permission.
(1) No holder of a decree in execution of which property is sold shall, without the express permission of the Court, bid for or purchase the property.
(2) Where decree-holder purchases, amount of decree may be taken as payment-
Where a decree-holder purchases with such permission, the purchase-money and the amount due on the decree may, subject to the provisions of section 73, be set off against one another, and the Court executing the decree small enter up satisfaction of the decree in whole or in part accordingly.
(3) Where a decree-holder purchases, by himself or through another person, without such permission, the Court may, if it thinks fit, on the application of the judgment-debtor or any other person whose interests are affected by the sale, by order set aside the sale; and the costs of such application and order, and any deficiency of price which may happen on the re-sale and all expenses attending it, shall be paid by the decree-holder.
72A. Mortgagee not to bid at sale without the leave of the Court.
(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in rule 72, a mortgagee of immovable property shall not bid for or purchase property sold in execution of a decree on the mortgage unless the Court grants him leave to bid for or purchase the property.
(2) If leave to bid is granted to such mortgagee, then the Court shall fix a reserve price as regards the mortgagee, and unless the Court otherwise directs, the reserve price shall be-
(a) not less than the amount then due for principal, interest and costs in respect of the mortgage if the property is sold in one lot; and
(b) in the case of any property sold in lots, not less than such sum as shall appear to the Court to be properly attributable to each lot in relation to the amount then due for principal, interest and costs on the mortgage.
(3) In other respects, the provisions of sub-rules (2) and (3) of rule 72 shall apply in relation to purchase by the decree-holder under that rule.
73. Restriction on bidding or purchase by officers.
No officer or other person having any duty to perform in connection with any sale shall, either directly or indirectly, bid for, acquire or attempt to acquire any interest in the property sold.
Sale of movable property.
74. Sale of agricultural produce.
(1) Where the property to be sold is agricultural produce, the sale shall be held,-
(a) if such produce is a growing crop, on or near the land on which such crop has grown, or
(b) if such produce has been cut or gathered, at or near the threshing floor or place for treading out grain or the like or fodder-stack on or in which it is deposited:
Provided that the Court may direct the sale to be held at the nearest place of public resort, if it is of opinion that the produce is thereby likely to sell to greater advantage.
(2) Where, on the produce being put up for sale,-
(a) a fair price, in the estimation of the person holding the sale, is not offered for it, and
(b) the owner of the produce or a person authorised to act in his behalf applies to have the sale postponed till next day or, if a market is held at the place of sale, the next market-day,
the sale shall be postponed accordingly and shall be then completed, whatever price may be offered for the produce.
75. Special provisions relating to growing crops.
(1) Where the property to be sold is a growing crop and the crop from its nature admits of being stored but has not yet been stored, the day of the sale shall be so fixed as to admit of its being made ready for storing before the arrival of such day, and the sale shall not be held until the crop has been cut or gathered and is ready for storing.
(2) Where the crop from its nature does not admit of being stored, it may be sold before it is cut and gathered and the purchaser shall be entitled to enter on the land, and to do all that is necessary for the purpose of tending and cutting or gathering it.
76. Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations.
Where the property to be sold is a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation, the Court may, instead of directing the sale to be made by public auction, authorise the sale of such instrument or share through a broker.
77. Sale by public auction.
(1) Where movable property is sold by public auction the price of each lot shall be paid at the time of sale or as soon after as the officer or other person holding the sale directs, and in default of payment the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) On payment of the purchase-money, the officer or other person holding the sale shall grant a receipt for the same, and the sale shall become absolute.
(3) Where the movable property to be sold is a share in goods belonging to the judgment-debtor and a co- owner, and two or more persons, of whom one is such co-owner, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bidding shall be deemed to be the bidding of the co-owner.
78. Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue.
No irregularity in publishing or conducting the sale of movable property shall vitiate the sale; but any person sustaining any injury by reason of such irregularity at the hand of any other person may institute a suit against him for compensation or (if such other person is the purchaser) for the recovery of the specific property and for compensation in default of such recovery.
79. Delivery of movable property, debts and shares.
(1) Where the property sold is movable property of which actual seizure has been made, it shall be delivered to the purchaser.
(2) Where the property sold is movable property in the possession of some person other than the judgment- debtor, the delivery thereof to the purchaser shall be made by giving notice to the person in possession prohibiting him from delivering possession of the property to any person except the purchaser.
(3) Where the property sold is a debt not secured by a negotiable instrument, or is a share in a corporation, the delivery thereof shall be made by a written order of the Court prohibiting the creditor from receiving the debt or any interest thereon, and the debtor from making payment thereof to any person except the purchaser, of prohibiting the person in whose name the share may be standing from making any transfer of the share to any person except the purchaser, or receiving payment of any dividend or interest thereon, and the manager, secretary or other proper officer of the corporation from permitting any such transfer or making any such payment to any person except the purchaser.
80. Transfer of negotiable instruments and shares.
(1) Where the execution of a document or the endorsement of the party in whose name a negotiable instrument or a share in a corporation is standing is required to transfer such negotiable instrument or share, the Judge or such officer as he may appoint in this behalf may execute such document or make such endorsement as may be necessary, and such execution or endorsement shall have the same effect as an execution or endorsement by the party.
(2) Such execution or endorsement may be in the following form, namely-
A.B. by C.D. Judge of the Court of (or as the case may be), in a suit by E.F. against A.B.
(3) Until the transfer of such negotiable instrument or share, the Court may, by order appoint some person to receive any interest or dividend due thereon and to sign a receipt for the same; and any receipt so signed shall be as valid and effectual for all purposes as if the same had been signed by the party himself.
81. Vesting order in case of other property.
In the case of any movable property not hereinbefore provided for, the Court may make an order vesting such property in the purchaser or as he may direct; and such property shall vest accordingly.
Sale of immovable property.
82. What Courts may order sales.
Sales of immovable property in execution of decrees may be ordered by any Court other than a Court of Small Causes.
83. Postponement of sale to enable judgment-debtor to raise amount of decree.
(1) Where an order for the sale of immovable property has been made, if the judgment-debtor can satisfy the Court that there is reason to believe that the amount of the decree may be raised by the mortgage or lease or private sale of such property, or some part thereof, or of any other immovable property of the judgment-debtor, the Court may, on his application, postpone the sale of the property comprised in the order for sale on such terms and for such period as it thinks proper, to enable him to raise the amount.
(2) In such case the Court shall grant a certificate to the judgment-debtor authorising him within a period to be mentioned therein, and notwithstanding anything contained in section 64, to make the proposed mortgage, lease or sale:
Provided that all moneys payable under such mortgage, lease or sale shall be paid, not to the judgment- debtor, but, save in so far as a decree-holder is entitled to set-off such money under the provisions of rule 72, into Court:
Provided also that not mortgage, lease or sale under this rule shall become absolute until it has been confirmed by the Court.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to apply to a sale of property directed to be sold in execution of a decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of, or charge on, such property.
84. Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default.
(1) On every sale of immovable property the person declared to be the purchaser shall pay immediately after such declaration a deposit of twenty-five per cent, on the amount of his purchase-money to the officer or other person conducting the sale, and in default of such deposit, the property shall forthwith be re-sold.
(2) Where the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set-off the purchase-money under rule 72, the Court may dispense with the requirements of this rule.
85. Time for payment in full of purchase-money.
The full amount of purchase-money payable shall be paid by the purchaser into Court before the Court closes on the fifteenth day from the sale of the property:
Provided that, in calculating the amount to be so paid into Court, the purchaser shall have the advantage of any set-off to which he may be entitled under rule 72.
86. Procedure in default of payment.
In default of payment within the period mentioned in the last preceding rule, the deposit may, if the Court thinks fit, after defraying the expenses of the sale, be forfeited to the Government, and the property shall be re-sold, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claim to the property our to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.
87. Notification on re-sale.
Every re-sale of immovable, property, in default of payment of the purchase- money within the period allowed for such payment, shall be made after the issue of fresh proclamation in the manner and for the period hereinbefore prescribed for the sale.
88. Bid of co-sharer to have preference.
Where the property sold is a share of undivided immovable property and two or more persons, or whom one is a co-sharer, respectively bid the same sum for such property or for any lot, the bid shall be deemed to be the bid of the co-sharer.
89. Application to set aside sale on deposit.
(1) Where immovable property has been sold in execution of a degree, any person claiming an interest in the property sold at the time of the sale or at the time of making the application, or acting for or in the interest of such person, may apply to have the sale set aside on his deposition in Court,-
(a) for payment to the purchaser, a sum equal to five per cent of the purchase-money, and
(b) for payment, to the decree-holder, the amount specified in the proclamation of sale as that for the recovery of which the sale was ordered less any amount which may, since the date of such proclamation of sale, have been received by the decree-holder.
(2) Where a person applies under rule 90 to set aside the sale of his immovable property, he shall not unless he withdraws his application, be entitled to make or prosecute an application under this rule.
(3) Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgment-debtor from any liability he may be under in respect of costs and interest not covered by the proclamation of sale.
90. Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud.
(1) Where any immovable property has been sold in execution of a decree, the decree-holder, or the purchaser, or any other person entitled to share in a rateable distribution of assets, whose interests are affected by the sale, may apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conduction it.
(2) No sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it unless, upon the facts proved, the Court is satisfied that the applicant has sustained substantial injury by reason of such irregularity or fraud.
(3) No application to set aside a sale under this rule shall be entertained upon any ground which the applicant could have taken on or before the date on which the proclamation of sale was drawn up.
There mere absence of, or defect in, attachment of the property sold shall not, by itself, be a ground for setting aside a sale under this rule.
91. Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable interest.
The purchaser at any such sale in execution of a decree may apply to the Court to set aside the sale, on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the property sold.
92. Sale when to become absolute or be set aside.
(1) When no application is made under rule 89, rule 90 or rule 91, or where such application is made and disallowed, the Court shall make an order confirming the sale, and thereupon the sale shall become absolute:
Provided that, where any property is sold in execution of a decree pending the final disposal of any claim to, or any objection to the attachment of, such property, the Court shall not confirm such sale until the final disposal of such claim or objection.
(2) Where such application is made and allowed, and where, in the case of an application under rule 89, the deposit required by that rule is made within thirty days from the date of sale, or in cases where the amount deposited under rule 89 is found to be deficient owing to any clerical or arithmetical mistake on the part of the depositor and such deficiency has been made good within such time as may be fixed by the Court, the Court shall make an order setting aside the sale:
Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to all persons affected thereby.
(3) No suit to set aside an order made under this rule shall be brought by any person against whom such order is made.
(4) Where a third party challenges the judgment-debtor’s title by filing a suit against the auction- purchaser, the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor shall be necessary parties to the suit.
(5) If the suit referred to in sub-rule (4) is decreed, the Court shall direct the decree-holder to refund the money to the auction-purchaser, and where such an order is passed the execution proceeding in which the sale had been held shall, unless the Court directs, be revived at the stage at which the sale was ordered.
93. Return of purchase-money in certain cases.
Where a sale of immovable property is set aside under rule 92, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of his purchase-money, with or without interest as the Court may direct, against any person to whom it has been paid.
94. Certificate to purchaser.
Where a sale of immovable property has become absolute, the Court shall grant a certificate specifying the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of sale of is declared to be the purchaser. Such certificate shall bear date the day on which the sale became absolute.
95. Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor.
Where the immovable property sold is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf or of some person claiming under a title created by the judgment-debtor subsequently to the attachment of such property and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order to delivery to be made by putting such purchaser or any person whom he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the property, and, if need be, by removing any person who refuses to vacate the same.
96. Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant.
Where the property sold is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and a certificate in respect thereof has been granted under rule 94, the Court shall, on the application of the purchaser, order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the certificate of sale in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, that the interest of the judgment-debtor has been transferred to the purchaser.
Resistance to delivery of possession to decree- holder or purchaser.
97. Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property.
(1) Where the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution of a decree is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of the property, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such resistance or obstruction.
(2) Where any application is made under sub-rule (1), the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.
98. Orders after adjudication.
(1) Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination and subject to the provisions of sub-rule (2),-
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.
(2) Where, upon such determination, the Court is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or by some other person at his instigation or on his behalf, or by any transferee, where such transfer was made during the pendency of the suit or execution proceeding, it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property, and where the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the Court may also, at the instance of the applicant, order the judgment-debtor, or any person acting at his instigation or on his behalf, to be detained in the civil prison for a term which may extend to thirty days.
99. Dispossession by decree-holder or purchaser.
(1) Where any person other than the judgment-debtor is dispossessed of immovable property by the holder of a decree for possession of such property or, where such property has been sold in execution of a decree, by the purchaser thereof, he may make an application to the Court complaining of such dispossession.
(2) Where any such application is made, the Court shall proceed to adjudicate upon the application in accordance with the provisions herein contained.
100. Order to be passed upon application complaining of dispossession.
Upon the determination of the questions referred to in rule 101, the Court shall, in accordance with such determination,-
(a) make an order allowing the application and directing that the applicant be put into the possession of the property or dismissing the application; or
(b) pass such other order as, in the circumstances of the case, it may deem fit.
101. Question to be determined.
All questions (including questions relating to right, title or interest in the property) arising between the parties to a proceeding on an application under rule 97 or rule 99 or their representatives, and relevant to the adjudication of the application, shall be determined by the Court dealing with the application and not by a separate suit and for this purpose, the Court shall, notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law for the time being in force, be deemed to have jurisdiction to decide such questions.
102. Rules not applicable to transferee pendent lite.
Nothing in rules 98 and 100 shall apply to resistance or obstruction in execution of a decree for the possession of immovable property by a person to whom the judgment-debtor has transferred the property after the institution of the suit in which the decree was passed or to the dispossession of any such person.
In this rule, “transfer” includes a transfer by operation of law.
103. Orders to be treated as decrees.
Where any application has been adjudicated upon under rule 98 or rule 100 the other made thereon shall have the same force and be subject to the same conditions as to an appeal or otherwise as if it were a decree.
104. Order under rule 101 or rule 103 to be subject to the result or pending suit.
Every order made under rule 101 or rule 103 shall be subject to the result of any suit that may be pending on the date of commencement of the proceeding in which such order is made, if in such suit the party against whom the order under rule 101 or rule 103 is made has sought to establish a right which he claims to the present possession of the property.
105. Hearing of application.
(1) The Court, before which an application under any of the foregoing rules of this Order is pending, may fix a day for the hearing of the application.
(2) Where on the day fixed or on any other day to which the hearing may be adjourned the applicant does not appear when the case is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the application be dismissed.
(3) Where the applicant appears and the opposite party to whom the notice has been issued by the Court does not appear, the Court may hear the application ex parte and pass such order as it thinks fit.
An application referred to in sub-rule (1) includes a claim or objection made under rule 58.
106. Setting aside order passed ex parte, etc.
(1) The applicant, against whom an order is made under sub-rule (2) rule 105 or the opposite party against whom an order is passed ex parte under sub-rule (3) of that rule or under sub-rule (1) of rule 23, may apply to the Court to set aside the order, and if he satisfies the Court that there was sufficient cause for his non- appearance when the application was called on for hearing, the Court shall set aside the order or such terms as to costs, or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for the further hearing of the application.
(2) No order shall be made on an application under sub-rule (1) unless notice of the application has been served on the other party.
(3) An application under sub-rule (1) shall be made within thirty days from the date of the order, or where, in the case of an ex parte order, the notice was not duly served, within thirty days from the date when applicant had knowledge of the order.
For convenience I have divided Order XXI in 3 separate articles. Previous parts of Order XXI-
- Governor of an Indian State: Role, Importance, and Functions - 4th September 2023
- Guardianship Under Hindu Law in India - 13th August 2023
- All Rules for Adoption in Hindus Under Hindu Laws - 13th August 2023