ORDER XXI of CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE (CPC) – EXECUTION OF DECREES AND ORDERS
Payment under decree.
1. Modes of paying money under decree.
(1) All money, payable under a decree shall be paid as follows, namely-
(a) by deposit into the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, or sent to that Court by postal money order or through a bank; or
(b) out of Court, to the decree-holder by postal money order or through a bank or by any other mode wherein payment is evidenced in writing; or
(c) otherwise, as the Court which made the decree, directs.
(2) Where any payment is made under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub rule (1), the judgment-debtor shall give notice thereof to the decree-holder either through the Court or directly to him by registered post, acknowledgement due.
(3) Where money is paid by postal money order or through a bank under clause (a) or clause (b) of sub-rule (1), the money order or payment through bank, as the case may be, shall accurately state the following particulars, namely-
(a) the number of the original suit;
(b) the names of the parties or where there are more than two plaintiffs or more than two defendants, as the case may be, the names of the first two plaintiffs and the first two defendants;
(c) how the money remitted is to be adjusted, that is to say, whether it is towards the principal, interest or costs;
(d) the number of the execution case of the Court, where such case is pending; and (e) the name and address of the payer.
(4) On any amount paid under clause (a) or clause (c) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of service of the notice referred to in sub-rule (2).
(5) On any amount paid under clause (b) of sub-rule (1) interest, if any, shall cease to run from the date of such payment:
Provided that, where the decree-holder refuses to accept the postal order or payment through a bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which the money was tendered to him, or where he avoids acceptance of the postal money order or payment through bank, interest shall cease to run from the date on which money would have been tendered to him in the ordinary course of business of the postal authorities or the bank, as the case may be.
2. Payment out of Court to decree-holder.
(1) Where any money payable under a decree of any kind is paid out of Court. [or decree of any kind is otherwise adjusted] in whole or in part to the satisfaction of the decree-holder, the decree-holder shall certify such payment or adjustment to the Court whose duty it is to execute the decree, and the Court shall record the same accordingly.
(2) The judgment-debtor [or any person who has become surety for the judgment-debtor] also may inform the Court of such payment or adjustment, and apply to the Court to issue a notice to the decree- holder to show cause, on a day to be fixed by the Court, why such payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified; and if, after service of such notice, the decree-holder fails to show cause why the payment or adjustment should not be recorded as certified, the Court record the same accordingly.
(2A) No payment or adjustment shall be recorded at the instance of the judgment- debtor unless-
(a) the payment is made in the manner provided in rule 1; or
(b) the payment or adjustment is proved by documentary evidence; or
(c) the payment or adjustment is admitted by, or on behalf of, the decree-holder in his reply to the notice given under sub-rule (2) of rule 1, on before the Court.
(3) A payment or adjustment, which has not been certified or recorded as aforesaid, shall not be recognized by any Court executing the decree.
Courts executing decrees.
3. Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction.
Where immovable property forms one estate or tenure situate within the local limits of jurisdiction of two or more Court, any one of such Courts may attach and sell the entire estate or tenure.
4. Transfer to Court of Small Causes.
Where a decree has been passed in a suit of which the value as set forth in the plaint did not exceed two thousand rupees and which, as regards its subject-matter, is not excepted by the law for the time being in force from the cognizance of either a Presidency or a Provincial Court of Small Causes, and the Court which passed it wishes it to be executed in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, such Court may send to the Court of Small Causes in Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, as the case may be, the copies and certificates mentioned in rule 6; and such Court of Small Causes shall thereupon execute the decree as if it had been passed by itself.
5. Mode of transfer.
Where a decree is to be sent for execution to another Court, the Court which passed such decree shall send the decree directly to such other Court whether or not such Court is situated in the same State, but the Court to which the decree is sent for execution shall, if it has no jurisdiction to execute the decree, send it to the Court having such jurisdiction.
6. Procedure where Court desires that its own decree shall be executed by another Court.
The Court sending a decree for execution shall send-
(a) a copy of the decree;
(b) a certificate setting forth that satisfaction of the decree has not been obtained by execution within the jurisdiction of the Court by which it was passed, or, where the decree has been executed in part, the extent to which satisfaction has been obtained and what part of the decree remains unsatisfied; and
(c) a copy of any order for the execution of the decree, or, if no such order has been made, a certificate to that effect.
7. Court receiving copies of decree, etc. to file same without proof.
The Court to which a decree is so sent shall cause such copes and certificates to be filed, without any further proof of the decree or order for execution, or of the copies thereof, unless the Court, for any special reasons to be recorded under the hand of the Judge, requires such proof.
8. Execution of decree or order by Court to which it is sent.
Where such copies are so filed, the decree or order may, if the Court to which it is sent is the District Court, be executed by such or be transferred for execution to any subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction.
9. Execution of High Court of decree transferred by other Court.
Where the Court to which the decree is sent for execution is a High Court, the decree shall be executed by such Court in the same manner as if it had been passed by such Court in exercise of its ordinary original civil jurisdiction.
Application for execution.
10. Application for execution.
Where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he shall apply to the Court which passed the decree or to the officer (if any) appointed in this behalf, or if the decree has been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another Court then to such Court or to the proper officer thereof.
11. Oral application.
(1) Where a decree is for the payment of money the Court may, on the oral application of the decree-holder at the time of passing of the decree, order immediate execution thereof by the arrest of the judgment-debtor, prior to the preparation of a warrant if he is within the precincts of the Court.
(2) Written application- Save as otherwise provided by sub-rule(1), every application for the execution of a decree shall be in writing, signed and verified by the applicant or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case, and shall contain in a tabular form the following particulars, namely-
(a) the number of the suit;
(b) the names of the parties;
(c) the date of the decree;
(d) whether any appeal has been preferred from the decree;
(e) whether any, and (if any) what, payment or other adjustment of the matter in controversy has been made between the parties subsequently to the decree;
(f) whether any, and (if any) what, previous applications have been made for the execution of the decree, the dates of such applications and their results;
(g) the amount with interest (if any) due upon the decree, or other relief granted thereby, together with particulars of any cross-decree, whether passed before or after the date of the decree sought to be executed;
(h) the amount of the costs (if any) awarded;
(i) the name of the person against whom execution of the decree is sought; and
(j) the mode in which the assistance of the Court is required whether-
(i) by the delivery of any property specifically decreed;
(ii) by the attachment, or by the attachment and sale, or by the sale without attachment, of any property;
(iii) by the arrest and detention in prison of any person;
(iv) by the appointment of a receiver;
(v) otherwise, as the nature of the relief granted may require.
(3) The Court to which an application is made under sub-rule (2) may require the applicant to produce a certified copy of the decree.
11A. Application for arrest to state grounds.
Where an application is made for the arrest and detention in prison of the judgment-debtor, it shall state, or be accompanied by an affidavit stating, the grounds on which arrest is applied for.
12. Application for attachment of movable property not in judgment-debtor’s possession.
Where an application is made for the attachment of any movable property belonging to a judgment-debtor in his possession, the decree-holder shall annex to the application an inventory of the property to be attached, containing a reasonably accurate description of the same.
13. Application for attachment of immovable property to contain certain particulars.
Where an application is made for the attachment of any immovable property belonging to a judgment-debtor, it shall contain at the foot-
(a) a description such property sufficient to identify the same and, in case such property can be identified by boundaries or numbers in a record of settlement or survey, a specification of such boundaries or numbers; and
(b) a specification of the judgment-debtor’s share or interest in such property to the best of the belief of the applicant, and so far as he has been able to ascertain the same.
14. Power to require certified extract from Collector’s register in certain cases.
Where an application is made for the attachment of any land which is registered in the office of the Collector, the Court may require the applicant to produce a certified extract from the register of such office, specifying the persons registered as proprietors of, or as possessing any transferable interest in, the land or its revenue, or as liable to pay revenue for the land, and the shares of the registered proprietors.
15. Application for execution by joint decree-holders.
(1) Where a decree has been passed jointly in favour of more persons than one, any one or more such persons may, unless the decree imposes any condition to the contrary, apply for the execution of the whole decree for the benefit of them all, or, where of them has died, for the benefit of the survivors and the legal representatives of the deceased.
(2) Where the Court sees sufficient cause for allowing the decree to be executed on an application made under this rule, it shall make such order as it deems necessary for protecting the interest of the persons who have not joined in the application.
16. Application for execution by transferee of decree.
Where a decree or, if a decree has been passed jointly in favour of two or more persons, the interest of any decree-holder in the decree in transferred by assignment in writing or by operation of law, the transferee may apply for execution of the decree to the Court which passed if, and the decree may be executed in the same manner and subject to the same conditions as if the application were made by such decree-holder:
Provided also that, where the decree, or such interest as aforesaid, has been transferred by assignment, notice of such application shall be given to the transferor and the judgment-debtor, and the decree shall not be executed until the Court has heard their objections (if any) to its execution:
Provided also that, where a decree for the payment of money against two or more persons has been transferred to one of them, it shall not be executed against the others.
Nothing in this rule shall affect the provisions of section 146, and a transferee of rights in the property, which is the subject matter of the suit, may apply for execution of the decree without a separate assignment of the decree as required by this rule.
17. Procedure on receiving application for execution of decree.
(1) On receiving an application for the execution of a decree as provided by rule 11, sub-rule (2), the Court shall ascertain whether such of the requirement’s of rules 11 to 14 as may be applicable to the case have been complied with; and if, they have not been complied with, [the Court shall allow] the defect to be remedied then and there or within a time to be fixed by it.
(1A) If the defect is not so remedied, the Court shall reject the application:
Provided that where, in the Court, there is some inaccuracy as to the amount referred to in clauses (g) and (h) of sub-rule (2) of rule 11, the Court, instead of rejecting the application, decide provisionally (without prejudice to the right of the parties to have the amount finally decided in the course of the proceedings) the amount and make an order for the execution of the decree for the amount so provisionally decided.
(2) Where an application is amended under the provisions of sub-rule (1), it shall be deemed to have been an application in accordance with law and presented on the date when it was first presented.
(3) Every amendment made under this rule shall be signed or initialled by the Judge.
(4) When the application is admitted, the Court shall enter in the proper register a note of the application and the date on which it was made, and shall, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, order execution of the decree according to the nature of the application:
Provided that, in the case of a decree for the payment of money, the value of the property attached shall, as nearly as may be, correspond with the amount due under the decree.
18. Execution in case of cross-decrees.
(1) Where applications are made to a Court for the execution of cross-decrees in separate suits for the payment of two sums of money passed between the same parties and capable of execution at the same time by such Court, then-
(a) if the two sums are equal, satisfaction shall be entered upon both decrees; and
(b) if the two sums are unequal execution may be taken out only by the holder of the decree for the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered on the decree for the larger sum as well as satisfaction on the decree for the smaller sum.
(2) This rule shall be deemed to apply where either party is an assignee of one of the decrees and as well in respect of judgment-debts due by the original assignor as in respect of judgment-debts due by the assignee himself.
(3) This rule shall not be deemed to apply unless-
(a) the decree holder in one of the suits which the decrees have been made is the judgment-debtor in the other and each party files the same character in both suits; and
(b) the sums due under the decrees are definite.
(4) The holder of a decree passed against several persons jointly and severally my treat is as a cross-decree in relation to a decree against him singly in favour of one or more of such persons.
(a) A holds a decree against B for Rs. 1,000. B holds a decree against A for the payment of Rs. 1,000 in case A fails to deliver certain goods at a future day. B cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(b) A and B, co-plaintiffs, obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 against C, and C obtain a decree for Rs. 1,000 1,000 against B. C cannot treat his decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(c) A obtains a decree against B for Rs. 1,000 C, who is a trustee for B, obtains a decree on behalf of B against A for Rs. 1,000 B cannot treat C’s decree as a cross-decree under this rule.
(d) A, B, C, D and E are jointly and severely liable for Rs. 1,000 under a decree obtained by F. A obtains a decree for Rs. 1,000 against F singly and applies for execution to the Court in which the joint-decree is being executed. F may treat his joint-decree as cross-decree under this rule.
19. Execution in case of cross-claims under same decree.
Where application is made to a Court for the execution of a decree under which two parties are entitled to recover sums of money from each other, then-
(a) if the two sums are equal, satisfaction for both shall be entered upon the decree; and
(b) if the two sums are unequal, execution may be taken out only by the party entitled to the larger sum and for so much only as remains after deducting the smaller sum, and satisfaction for the smaller sum shall be entered upon the decree.
20. Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage-suits.
The provisions contained in rules 18 and 19 shall apply to decrees for sale in enforcement of a mortgage or charge.
21. Simultaneous execution.
The Court may, in its discretion, refuse execution at the same time against the person and property of the judgment-debtor.
22. Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases.
(1) Where an application for execution is made-
(a) more than two years after the date of the decree, or
(b) against the legal representative of a party to the decree or where an application is made for execution of a decree filed under the provisions of section 44A, or
(c) against the assignee or receiver in insolvency, where the party to the decree has been adjudged to be an insolvent, the Court executing the decree shall issue a notice to the person against whom execution is applied for requiring him to show cause, on a date to be fixed, why the decree should not be executed against him:
Provided that no such notice shall be necessary in consequence of more than two years having elapsed between the date of the decree and the application for execution if the application is made within two years from the date of the last order against the party against whom execution is applied for, made on any previous application for execution, or in consequence of the application being made against the legal representative of the judgment-debtor if upon a previous application for execution against the same person the Court has ordered execution to issue against him.
(2) Nothing in the foregoing sub-rule shall be deemed to preclude the Court from issuing any process in execution of a decree without issuing the notice thereby prescribed, if, for reasons to be recorded, it considers that the issue of such notice would cause unreasonable delay or would defeat the ends of justice.
22A. Sale not to be set aside on the death of the judgment-debtor before the sale but after the service of the proclamation of sale.
Where any property is sold in execution of a decree, the sale shall not be set aside merely by reason of the death of the judgment-debtor between the date of issue of the proclamation of sale and the date of the sale notwithstanding the failure of the decree-holder to substitute the legal representative of such deceased judgment-debtor, but, in case of such failure, the Court may set aside the sale if it is satisfied that the legal representative of the deceased judgment-debtor has been prejudiced by the sale.
23. Procedure after issue of notice.
(1) Where the person to whom notice is issued under rule 22 does not appear or does not show cause to the satisfaction of the Court why the decree should not be executed the Court shall order the decree to be executed.
(2) Where such person offers any objection to the execution of the decree, the Court shall consider such objection and make such order as it thinks fit.
Process for execution.
24. Process for execution.
(1) When the preliminary measures (if any) required by the foregoing rules have been taken, the Court shall, unless it sees cause to the contrary, issue its process for the execution of the decree.
(2) Every such process shall bear date the day on which it is issued, and shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as the Court may appoint in this behalf, and shall be sealed with the seal of the Court and delivered to the proper officer to be executed.
(3) In every such process, a day shall be specified on or before which it shall be executed and a day shall also be specified on or before which it shall be returned to the Court, but no process shall be deemed to be void if no day for its return is specified therein.
25. Endorsement on process.
(1) The officer entrusted with the execution of the process shall endorse thereon the day on, and the manner in which it was executed, and, if the latest day specified in the process for the return thereof has been exceeded, the reason of the delay, or, if it is executed, the reason why it was not executed, and shall return the process with such endorsement to the Court.
(2) Where the endorsement is to the effect that such officer is unable to execute the process, the Court shall examine him touching his alleged inability, and may, if it thinks fit, summon and examine witnesses as to such inability, and shall record the result.
Stay of execution.
26. When Court may stay execution.
(1) the Court to which a decree has been sent for execution shall, upon sufficient cause being shown, stay the execution of such decree for a reasonable time, to enable the judgment-debtor to apply to the Court by which the decree was passed, or to any Court having appellate jurisdiction in respect of the decree or the execution thereof, for an order to stay execution, or for any other order relating to the decree or execution which might have been made by such Court of first instance or Appellate Court if execution had been issued thereby, or if application for execution had been made thereto.
(2) Where the property or person of the judgment-debtor has been seized under an execution, the Court which issued the execution may order the restitution of such property or the discharge of such person pending the result of the application.
(3) Power to require security from, or impose conditions upon, judgment-debtor-
Before making an order to stay execution, or for the restitution of property or the discharge of the judgment-debtor, [the Court shall require] such security from, or impose such conditions upon, the judgment-debtor as it thinks fit.
27. Liability of judgment-debtor discharged.
No order of restitution or discharge under rule 26 shall prevent the property or person of a judgment-debtor from being retaken in execution of the decree sent for execution.
28. Order of Court which passed decree or of Appellate Court to be binding upon Court applied to.
Any order of the Court by which the decree was passed, or of such Court of appeal as aforesaid, in relation to the execution of such decree, shall be binding upon the Court to which the decree was sent for execution.
29. Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and judgment-debtor.
Where a suit is pending in any Court against the holder of a decree of such Court [or of a decree which is being executed by such Court], on the part of the person against whom the decree was passed, the Court may, on such terms as to security or otherwise, as it thinks fit, stay execution of the decree until the pending suit has been decided:
Provided that if the decree is one for payment of money, the Court shall, if it grants stay without requiring security, record its reasons for so doing.
Mode of execution.
30. Decree for payment of money.
Every decree for the payment of money, including a decree for the payment of money as the alternative to some other relief, may be executed by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment and sale of his property, or by both.
31. Decree for specific movable property.
(1) Where the decree is for any specific movable, or for any share in a specific movable, it may be executed by the seizure, if practicable, of the movable or share, and by the delivery thereof to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he appoints to receive delivery on his behalf, or by the detention in the civil prison of the judgment-debtor, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.
(2) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) has remained in force for three months if the judgment- debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold, and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder, in cases where any amount has been fixed by the decree to be paid as an alternative to delivery of movable property, such amount, and, in other cases, such compensation as it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
(3) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or where, at the end of three months from the date of attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or, if made, has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
32. Decree for specific performance for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction.
(1) Where the party against whom a decree for the specific performance of a contract, or for restitution of conjugal rights, or for an injunction, has been passed, has had an opportunity of obeying the decree and has wilfully failed to obey it, the decree may be enforced in the case of a decree for restitution of conjugal rights by the attachment of his property or, in the case of a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction by his detention in the civil prison, or by the attachment of his property, or by both.
(2) Where the party against whom a decree for specific performance or for an injunctions been passed is a corporation, the decree may be enforced by the attachment of the property of the corporation or, with the leave of the Court by the detention in the civil prison of the directors or other principal officers thereof, or by both attachment and detention.
(3) Where any attachment under sub-rule (1) or sub-rule (2) has remained in force for six months if the judgment-debtor has not obeyed the decree and the decree-holder has applied to have the attached property sold, such property may be sold; and out of the proceeds the Court may award to the decree-holder such compensation s it thinks fit, and shall pay the balance (if any) to the judgment-debtor on his application.
(4) Where the judgment-debtor has obeyed the decree and paid all costs of executing the same which he is bound to pay, or here, at the end of six months from the date of the attachment, no application to have the property sold has been made, or if made has been refused, the attachment shall cease.
(5) Where a decree for the specific performance of a contract or for an injunction has not been obeyed, the Court may, in lieu of or in addition to all or any of the processes aforesaid, direct that the act required to be done may be done so far as practicable by the decree-holder or some other person appointed by the Court, at the cost of the judgment-debtor, and upon the act being done the expenses incurred may be ascertained in such manner as the Court may direct and may be recovered as if they were included in the decree.
A, a person of little substance, effects a building which renders uninhabitable a family mansion belonging to B. A, in spite of his detention in prison and the attachment of his property, declines to obey a decree obtained against him by B and directing him to recover the building. The Court is of opinion that no sum recoverable by the sale of A’s property would adequately compensate B for the depreciation in the value of his mansion. B may apply to the Court to remove the building and may recover the cost of such removal from a in the execution-proceedings.
33. Discretion of Court in executing decrees for restitution of conjugal rights.
(1) Notwithstanding anything in rule 32, the Court, either at the time of passing a decree against a husband for the restitution of conjugal rights or at any time afterwards, may order that the decree shall be executed in the manner provided in this rule.
(2) Where the Court has made an order under sub-rule (1), it may order that, in the event of the decree not being obeyed within such period as may be fixed in this behalf, the judgment-debtor shall make to the decree-holder such periodical payments as may be just, and, if it thinks fit, require that the judgment-debtor shall, to its satisfaction, secure to the decree-holder such periodical payments.
(3) The Court may from time to time vary or modify any order made under sub-rule (2) for the periodical payment of money, either by altering the times of payment or by increasing or diminishing the amount, or may temporally suspend the same as to the whole or any part of the money so ordered to be paid, and again review the same, either wholly or in part as it may think just.
(4) Any money ordered to be paid under this rule may be recovered as though it were payable under a decree for the payment of money.
34. Decree for execution of document, or endorsement of negotiable instrument.
(1) Where a decree is for the execution of a document or for the endorsement for a negotiable instrument and the judgment-debtor neglects or refuses to obey the decree, the decree-holder may prepare a draft of the document or endorsement in accordance with the terms of the decree and deliver the same to the Court.
(2) The Court shall thereupon cause the draft to be served on the judgment-debtor together with a notice requiring his objections (if any) to be made within such time as the Court fixes in this behalf.
(3) Where the judgment-debtor object tot he draft, his objections shall be stated in writing within such time, and the court shall make such order approving or altering the draft, as it thinks fit.
(4) The decree-holder shall deliver to the Court a copy of the draft with such alterations (if any) as the Court may have directed upon the proper stamp-paper if a stamp is required by the law for the time being in force; and the Judge or such officer as may be appointed in this behalf shall execute the document so delivered.
(5) The execution of a document or the endorsement of a negotiable instrument under this rule may be in the following form, namely-
“C.D., Judge of the Court of
(or as the case may be), for A.B. in suit by E.F. against A.B.” and shall have the same effect as the execution of the document or the endorsement of the negotiable instrument by the party ordered to execute or endorse the same.
(6) (a) Where the registration of the document is required under any law for the time being in force, the Court, or such officer of the court as may be authorised in this behalf by the Court, shall cause the document to be registered in accordance with such law.
(b) Where the registration of the document is not so required, but the decree-holder desires it to be registered, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit.
(c) Where the Court makes any order for the registration of any document, it may make such order as it thinks fit as to the expenses of registration.
35. Decree for immovable property.
(1) Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property, possession thereof shall be delivered to the party to whom it has been adjudged, or to such person as he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf, and, if necessary, by removing any person bound by the decree who refuses to vacate the property.
(2) Where a decree is for the joint possession of immovable property, such possession shall be delivered by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property and proclaiming the beat of drum, or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree.
(3) Where possession of any building on enclosure is to be delivered and the person in possession, being bound by the decree, does not afford free access, the Court, through its officers, may, after giving reasonable warning and facility to any woman not appearing in public according to the customs of the country to withdraw, remove or open any lock or bolt or break open any door or do any other act necessary for putting the decree-holder in possession.
36. Decree for delivery of immovable property when in occupancy of tenant.
Where a decree is for the delivery of any immovable property in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same and not bound by the decree to relinquish such occupancy, the Court shall order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode, at some convenient place, the substance of the decree in regard to the property.
Next article for same Order (have divided Order XXI into 3 different articles for convenience),