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Chapter XVII (378-382) of IPC – Offences Against Property

Chapter XVII (383-389) of IPC – Extortion

Chapter XVII (390-402) of IPC – Robbery and Dacoity

Chapter XVII (403-404) of IPC – Criminal Misappropriation of Property

Chapter XVII (405-409) of IPC – Criminal Breach of Trust

Chapter XVII (410-414) of IPC – Receiving of Stolen Property

Chapter XVII (415-420) of IPC – Cheating

Chapter XVII (421-424) of IPC – Fraudulent Deeds and Disposition of Property

Chapter XVII (425-440) of IPC – Mischief


CRIMINAL TRESPASS – INDIAN PENAL CODE (IPC)

441. Criminal Trespass.

Whoever enters into or upon property in possession of another with intent to commit an offence or to intimidate, insult or annoy and person in possession of such property,
or
having lawfully entered into or upon such property, unlawfully remains therewith intent thereby to intimidate, insult or annoy any such person, or with intent to commit an offence,

is said to commit “criminal trepass“.

442. House trespass.

Whoever commits criminal trespass by entering into or remaining in any building, tent or vessel used as a human dwelling or any building used as a place for worship, or as a place for the custody of property, is said to commit “house- trespass“.

Explanation-
The introduction of any part of the criminal trespasser’s body is entering sufficient to constitute house-trespass.

443. Lurking house-trespass.

Whoever commits house-trespass having taken precautions to conceal such house-trespass from some person who has a right to exclude or eject the trespasser from the building, tent or vessel which is the subject of the trespass, is said to commit “lurking house-trespass“.

444. Lurking house-trespass by night.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit “lurking house-trespass by night“.

445. House breaking.

A person is said to commit “house-breaking” who commits house-trespass if he effects his entrance into the house or any part of it in any of the six ways hereinafter described; or if, being in the house or any part of it for the purpose of committing an offence, or, having committed an offence therein, he quits the house or any part of it in any of such six ways, that is to say-
First – If he enters or quits through a passage by himself, or by any abettor of the house-trespass, in order to the committing of the house-trespass.

Secondly – If he enters or quits through any passage not intended by any person, other than himself or an abettor of the offence, for human entrance; or through any passage to which he has obtained access by scaling or climbing over any wall or building.

Thirdly – If he enters or quits through any passage which he or any abettor of the house-trespass has opened, in order to the committing of the house-trespass by any means by which that passage was not intended by the occupier of the house to be opened.

Fourthly – If he enters or quits by opening any lock in order to the committing of the house-trespass, or in order to the quitting of the house after a house-trespass.

Fifthly – If he effects his entrance or departure by using criminal force or committing an assault or by threatening any person with assault.

Sixthly – If he enters or quits by any passage which he knows to have been fastened against such entrance or departure, and to have been unfastened by himself or by an abettor of the house-trespass.

Explanation-
Any out-house or building occupied with a house, and between which and such house there is an immediate internal communication, is part of the house within the meaning of this section.

Illustrations-
(a) A commits house-trespass by making a hole through the wall of Z’s house, and putting his hand through the aperture. This is house-breaking. 

(b) A commits house-trespass by creeping into a ship at a port-hole between decks. This is house-breaking. 

(c) A commits house-trespass by entering Z’s house through a window. This is house-breaking.

(d) A commits house-trespass by entering Z’s house through the door, having opened a door which was fastened. This is house-breaking.

(e) A commits house-trespass by entering Z’s house through the door, having lifted a latch by putting a wire through a hole in the door. This is house-breaking.

(f) A finds the key of Z’s house door, which Z had lost, and commits house- trespass by entering Z’s house, having opened the door with that key. This is house-breaking.

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(g) Z is standing in his doorway. A forces a passage by knocking Z down, and commits house-trespass by entering the house. This is house-breaking.

(h) Z, the door-keeper of Y, is standing in Y’s doorway. A commits house-trespass by entering the house, having deterred Z from opposing him by threatening to beat him. This is house-breaking.

446. House-breaking by night.

Whoever commits house-breaking after sunset and before sunrise, is said to commit “house-breaking by night“.

447. Punishment for criminal trespass.

Whoever commits criminal trespass shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, with fine or which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both— Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person in possession of the property trespassed upon.

COMMENTS
Mere vague allegations are not sufficient for conviction under section 498 for criminal trespass;
Bhaskar Chattoraj v. State of West Bengal, (1991) Cr LJ 429 (SC)

448. Punishment for house-trespass.

Whoever commits house-trespass shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine or which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for one year, or fine of 1,000 rupees, or both— Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person in possession of the property trespassed upon.

449. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with death.

 

Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with death, shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, or with rigorous imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

450. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment for life.

Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment for life, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

451. House-trespass in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.

Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to seven years.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Para I:
Punishment—Imprisonment for 2 years and fine—Cognizable—Bailable— 
Triable by any Magistrate.
Para II: Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person in possession of the house trespassed upon with the permission of the court.

452. House-trespass after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint.

Whoever commits house-trespass, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt, or of assault, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

453. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass or house-breaking, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 2 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

454. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass or house-breaking, in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine; and if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to ten years.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Para I :
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- 
bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.
Para II : Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compounded.

STATE AMENDMENT
State of Tamil Nadu:
Section 454 of the principal Act shall be renumbered as sub-section (1) of that section and after sub-section (1) as so renumbered, the following sub-section shall be added, namely-
“(2) Whoever commits lurking house-trespass or house-breaking in any building used as a place of worship, in order to the committing of the offence of theft of any idol or icon from such building, shall notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), be punished with rigorous imprisonment which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to ten years and with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees: Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than three years”.
Vide Tamil Nadu Act No. 28 of 1993, section 4.

455. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking after preparation for hurt, assault or wrongful restraint.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass, or house-breaking, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person, or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt, or of assault, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

456. Punishment for lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

457. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night in order to commit offence punishable with imprisonment.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, in order to the committing of any offence punishable with imprisonment, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine; and, if the offence intended to be committed is theft, the term of the imprisonment may be extended to fourteen years.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Para I:
Punishment—Imprisonment for 5 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- 
bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.
Para II: Punishment—Imprisonment for 14 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class.

STATE AMENDMENT
State of Tamil Nadu: Section 457 of the principal Act shall be renumbered as sub-section (1) of that section and after sub-section (1) as so renumbered, the following sub-section shall be added, namely-
“(2) Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night or house-breaking by night in any building used as a place of worship, in order to the committing of the offence of theft of any idol or icon from such building, shall, notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), be punished with rigorous imprisonment which shall not be less than three years but which may extend to fourteen years and with fine which shall not be less than five thousand rupees: Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than three years”.
Vide Tamil Nadu Act No. 28 of 1993, section 5.

458. Lurking house-trespass or house-breaking by night after preparation for hurt, assault, or wrongful restraint.

Whoever commits lurking house-trespass by night, or house-breaking by night, having made preparation for causing hurt to any person or for assaulting any person, or for wrongfully restraining any person, or for putting any person in fear of hurt, or of assault, or of wrongful restraint, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to fourteen years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 14 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

459. Grievous hurt caused whilst committing lurking house trespass or house-breaking.

Whoever, whilst committing lurking house-trespass or house-breaking, causes grievous hurt to any person or attempts to cause death or grievous hurt to any person, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

460. All persons jointly concerned in lurking house-trespass or house- breaking by night punishable where death or grievous hurt caused by one of them.

If, at the time of the committing of lurking house-trespass by night or house- breaking by night, any person guilty of such offence shall voluntarily cause or attempt to cause death or grievous hurt to any person, every person jointly concerned in committing such lurking house-trespass by night or house-breaking by night, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

461. Dishonestly breaking open receptacle containing property.

Whoever dishonestly or with intent to commit mischief, breaks open or unfastens any closed receptacle which contains or which he believes to contain property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine, or both—Cognizable—Bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

462. Punishment for same offence when committed by person entrusted with custody.

Whoever, being entrusted with any closed receptacle which contains or which he believes to contain property, without having authority to open the same, dishonestly, or with intent to commit mischief, breaks open or unfastens that receptacle, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both—Cognizable—Bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

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CHAPTER XVIII (463-477A) of IPC – OFFENCES RELATING TO DOCUMENTS AND TO PROPERTY MARKS

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