4. May Presume- Whenever it is provided by this Act that Court may presume a fact, it may either regard such fact as proved, unless and until it is disproved, or may call for proof of it. Shall presume– Whenever it s directed by this Act that the Court shall presumeKEEP READING

112. Birth during marriage, conclusive proof of legitimacy. The fact that any person was born during the continuance of a valid marriage between his mother and any man, or within two hundred and eighty days after its dissolution, the mother remaining unmarried, shall be conclusive proof that he is theKEEP READING

159. Refreshing memory. A witness may, while under examination refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by himself at the time of the transaction concerning which he questioned, or so soon afterwards that the Court considers it likely that the transaction was at that time fresh in hisKEEP READING

1. Short title, extent and commencement. This Act may be called the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir and applies to all judicial proceedings in or before any Court, including Court Martial, other than Court Martial convened underKEEP READING

2. Repeal of enactments. This section was repealed by the Repealing Act 1938. Read Indian Evidence Act in a beautiful, systematic way. Read Evidence Act each section wise. Download beautiful, colourful PDF for Evidence Act.KEEP READING

3. Interpretation Clause. In this Act the following words and expressions are used in the following sense. Unless a contrary intention appears from the context- Court- Includes all Judges and Magistrates, and all persons, except arbitrators, legally authorised to take evidence. Fact- Fact means and includes- i) any thing, stateKEEP READING

5. Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts. Evidence may be given in any suit or proceeding of the existence or non-existence of every fact in issue and of such other facts which are declared to be relevant, and of no others. Note- This section shall notKEEP READING

6. Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction. Facts which, though not in issue, are so connected with a fact in issue as to form part of the same transaction, are relevant, whether they occurred at the same time and place or at different times and places. Illustrations- (a) AKEEP READING

7. Facts which are occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue. Facts which are occasion, cause or effect, immediate or otherwise, of relevant facts, or facts in issue, or which constitute the state of things under which they happened, or which afforded an opportunity for their occurrence or transaction,KEEP READING

8. Motive preparation and previous or subsequent conduct. Any fact is relevant which shows or constitutes a motive or preparation for any fact in issue or relevant fact. The conduct of any party, or of any agent to any party, to any suit or proceeding, in reference to such suit orKEEP READING

9. Facts necessary to explain or introduce relevant facts. Facts necessary to explain or introduce a fact in issue or relevant fact, or which support or rebut an inference suggested by a fact in issue or relevant fact, or which establish the identity of any thing or person whose identityKEEP READING

10. Things said or done by conspirator in reference to common design. Where there is reasonable ground to believe that two or more persons have conspired together to commit an offence or an actionable wrong, anything said, done or written by any one of such persons in reference to theirKEEP READING

11. When Facts not otherwise relevant become relevant. Facts not otherwise relevant, are relevant, a- if they are inconsistent with any fact in issue or relevant fact. b- if by themselves or in connection with other facts they make the existence or non- existence of any fact in issue orKEEP READING

12. In suits for damages, facts tending to enable Court to determine amount are relevant. In suits in which damages are claimed, any fact which will enable the Court to determine the amount of damages which ought to be awarded is relevant. Read Indian Evidence Act in a beautiful, systematicKEEP READING

13. Facts relevant when right or custom is in question. Where the question is as to existence of any right or custom, the following facts are relevant; (a) Any transaction by which the right or custom in question was created, claimed modified, recognised, asserted or denied, or which was inconsistentKEEP READING

14. Facts showing existence of state of mind or of body or bodily feeling. Facts showing the existence of any state of mind, such as intention, knowledge, good faith, negligence, rashness, ill-will or goodwill towards any particular person, or showing the existence of any state of body or bodily feeling,KEEP READING