159. Refreshing memory. A witness may, while under examination refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by himself at the time of the transaction concerning which he questioned, or so soon afterwards that the Court considers it likely that the transaction was at that time fresh in his
Section 6 Indian Evidence Act discusses the relevancy of facts that form part of the same transaction. Section 6 is based on the English principle res gestae, which on translation means things said and done in the course of the transaction. Hence res gestae includes act as well as a statement.
Section 6 of the Indian Evidence Act is as follows:
Facts which, though not in issue, are so connected with a fact in issue as to form part of the same transaction are relevant, whether they occurred at the same time and place or at different times and places.
Section 112 of the Indian Evidence Act lays down that:
1. the fact that a child was born during the subsistence of a valid marriage between his mother and a man, or
within 280 days after the dissolution of marriage and the mother remains unmarried,
2. this shall be conclusive proof that it is the legitimate child of that man.
Important: This provision is subject to the exception that the man and woman had no access to each other.
Section 3 – Interpretation Clause.
Section 4 – May Presume.
Section 5 – Evidence may be given of facts in issue and relevant facts.
Section 6 – Relevancy of facts forming part of same transaction.
Section 7 – Facts which are occasion, cause or effect of facts in issue.
Section 8 – Motive preparation and previous or subsequent conduct.
What is Retracted Confession
A retracted confession is a statement made by an accused person before the trial begins, by which he admits to having committed the offence, but which he rejects at the trial.
Evidentiary Value of Retracted Confession
It is unsafe to base the conviction on a retracted confession unless it is corroborated by trustworthy evidence. Here are two important cases related to the evidentiary value of a retracted confession.
1. Bharat vs State of UP, 1971.
2. Manjit Singh vs CBI, 2011.
The rules related to relevancy are given under section 5 to 55 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.
The rules related to admissibility are covered in the latter part of the Evidence Act, that is after section 56.
Relevancy admires what seems to be logical and probable.
Whereas admissibility strictly follows the rules of law. Anything can’t be admitted merely because it appears to be logical.
The whole base of the Indian Evidence Act is pillared on four questions:
1. WHAT IS EVIDENCE GIVEN FOR?
Answer: Evidence is given for Facts (Facts in Issue and Relevant Facts)
Note that evidence is not given for Law.
2. HOW ARE THE EVIDENCE FOR FACTS GIVEN?
Answer: Evidence for facts is given orally called Oral Evidence or by proper documents called Documentary Evidence.
What is the meaning of fact discovered in regard to Section 27 of Indian Evidence Act, 1872?
Section 27 lays that if the confession of the accused is supported by the discovery of the fact then it may be presumed to be true and not to be excluded.
Section 27 is based on doctrine of confirmation by subsequent events:-
1. Section 74 of the Indian Evidence Act defines public documents –
Documents forming the act or records of sovereign authority namely Parliament, Legislative Assemblies, official bodies, tribunals, public officers or any part of India or of Commonwealth or foreign country.
Section 75 says that all other documents other than public and private documents.
Evidence plays an integral part in a trial as it helps in reaching a conclusion and deliver a judgement. Evidence can be oral, documentary or in electronic form. A witness can be testified on any event that he has seen or heard.
Certain communications are protected and cannot be adduced as evidence, and are known as privileged communications. Let us learn more.
Evidence comprises anything that may be used to determine the truth of the assertion. The production and presentation of evidence depend on establishing on whom the burden of proof lays.
The judge or the jury decides if the burden of proof has been fulfilled. After it has been established who shall carry the burden of proof, the evidence is foremost gathered, collected and then presented before the court to determine its admissibility.
Section 62 says that primary evidence means the original document itself. The evidence which is not secondary is primary.
Section 61 of Evidence Act says that the content of a document can be proved by two modes – primary evidence or secondary evidence.
It means there is no other prescribed method by law for proving the content of a document.
The main issue of concern is whether a confession given to police officer is admissible or not, and what is the relevancy of confession given to police.
Section 25 of the Indian Evidence Act says that a confession made to a police officer is not admissible in the eyes of the law and cannot be proved against the person who made that confession.