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Chapter XVI (299-311) of IPC – Offences Affecting Life

Chapter XVI (312-318) of IPC – Of the Causing of Miscarriage, of Injuries to Unborn Children, of the Exposure of Infants, and of the Concealment of Births


319. Hurt.

Whoever causes bodily pain, disease or infirmity to any person is said to cause hurt.

Bare Acts

320. Grievous hurt.

The following kinds of hurt only are designated as “grievous“:
First — Emasculation.
Secondly — Permanent privation of the sight of either eye.
Thirdly — Permanent privation of the hearing of either ear,
Fourthly — Privation of any member or joint.
Fifthly.— Destruction or permanent impairing of the powers of any member or joint.
Sixthly — Permanent disfiguration of the head or face.
Seventhly — Fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth.
Eighthly — Any hurt which endangers life or which causes the sufferer to be during the space of twenty days in severe bodily pain, or unable to follow his ordinary pursuits.

321. Voluntarily causing hurt.

Whoever does any act with the intention of thereby causing hurt to any person, or with the knowledge that he is likely thereby to cause hurt to any person, and does thereby cause hurt to any person, is said “voluntarily to cause hurt“.

322. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt.

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, if the hurt which he intends to cause or knows himself to be likely to cause is grievous hurt, and if the hurt which he causes is grievous hurt, is said “voluntarily to cause grievous hurt.”

Explanation-
A person is not said voluntarily to cause grievous hurt except when he both causes grievous hurt and intends or knows himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt. But he is said voluntarily to cause grievous hurt, if intending or knowing himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt of one kind, he actually causes grievous hurt of another kind.

Illustration-
A, intending or knowing himself to be likely permanently to disfigure Z’s face, gives Z a blow which does not permanently disfigure Z’s face, but which cause Z to suffer severe bodily pain for the space of twenty days. A has voluntarily caused grievous hurt.

323. Punishment for voluntarily causing hurt.

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine of 1,000 rupees, or both—Non- cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compounded by the person to whom the hurt is caused.

324. Voluntarily causing hurt by dangerous weapons or means.

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 334, voluntarily causes hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both—Cognizable—Bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person to whom hurt is caused with the permission of the court.

325. Punishment for voluntarily causing grievous hurt.

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years, and fine—Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person to whom hurt is caused with the permission of the court.

COMMENTS
The act of squeezing the testicles of a person would be an offence of causing grievous hurt;
State of Karnataka v. Shivalingaiah, (1988) Cr LJ 394 : AIR 1988 SC 115.

326. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means.

Whoever, except in the case provided for by section 335, voluntarily causes grievous hurt by means of any instrument for shooting, stabbing or cutting, or any instrument which, used as a weapon of offence, is likely to cause death, or by means of fire or any heated substance, or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance, or by means of any explosive substance, or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale, to swallow, or to receive into the blood, or by means of any animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non- compoundable.

326A. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid etc.

Whoever causes permanent or partial damage or deformity to, or bums or maims or disfigures or disables, any part or parts of the body of a person or causes grievous hurt by throwing acid on or by administering acid to that person, or by using any other means with the intention of causing or with the knowledge that he is likely to cause such injury or hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine;
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses of the treatment of the victim;
Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for not less than 10 years but which may extend to Imprisonment for life and fine to be paid to the victim— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session.

326B. Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid.

Whoever throws or attempts to throw acid on any person or attempts to administer acid to any person, or attempts to use any other means, with the intention of causing permanent or partial damage or deformity or bums or maiming or disfigurement or disability or grievous hurt to that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanations-
(1) For the purposes of section 326A and this section, “acid” includes any substance which has acidic or corrosive character or burning nature, that is capable of causing bodily injury leading to scars or disfigurement or temporary or permanent disability.

(2) For the purposes of section 326A and this section, permanent or partial damage or deformity shall not be required to be irreversible.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 5 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session.

327. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act.

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt, for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer, or from any person interested in the sufferer, any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything which is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

328. Causing hurt by means of poison, etc. with intent to commit an offence.

Whoever administers to or causes to be taken by any person any poison or any stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug, or other thing with intent to cause hurt to such person, or with intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offence or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

329. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort property, or to constrain to an illegal act.

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any property or valuable security, or of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in such sufferer to do anything that is illegal or which may facilitate the commission of an offence, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Law Notes

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

330. Voluntarily causing hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property.

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer, any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security or to satisfy any claim or demand, or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Illustrations-
(a) A, a police-officer, tortures Z in order to induce Z to confess that he committed a crime. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(b) A, a police-officer, tortures B to induce him to point out where certain stolen property is deposited. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(c) A, a revenue officer, tortures Z in order to compel him to pay certain arrears of revenue due from Z. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

(d) A, a zamindar, tortures a raiyat in order to compel him to pay his rent. A is guilty of an offence under this section.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

331. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to extort confession, or to compel restoration of property.

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt for the purpose of extorting from the sufferer or from any person interested in the sufferer any confession or any information which may lead to the detection of an offence or misconduct, or for the purpose of constraining the sufferer or any person interested in the sufferer to restore or to cause the restoration of any property or valuable security, or to satisfy any claim or demand or to give information which may lead to the restoration of any property or valuable security, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

332. Voluntarily causing hurt to deter public servant from his duty.

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 years, or fine, or both—Cognizable—Bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

More Law PDFs

333. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt to deter public servant from his duty.

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt to any person being a public servant in the discharge of his duty as such public servant, or with intent to prevent or deter that person or any other public servant from discharging his duty as such public servant, or in consequence of anything done or attempted to be done by that person in the lawful discharge of his duty as such public servant, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

334. Voluntarily causing hurt on provocation.

Whoever voluntarily causes hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 1 month, or fine of 500 rupees, or both—Non-congnizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person to whom the hurt is caused.

335. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt on provocation.

Whoever voluntarily causes grievous hurt on grave and sudden provocation, if he neither intends nor knows himself to be likely to cause grievous hurt to any person other than the person who gave the provocation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to four years, or with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees, or with both.

Explanation-
The last two sections are subject to the same provisos as Explanation 1, section 300.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 4 years, or fine of 2000 rupees, or both— Cognizable-Bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Compoundable by the person to whom hurt is caused with the permission of the court.

336. Act endangering life or personal safety of others.

Whoever does any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which may extend to two hundred and fifty rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 3 months, or fine of 250 rupees, or both— Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

337. Causing hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others.

Whoever causes hurt to any person by doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to six months, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 6 months, or fine of 500 rupees, or both— Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person to whom hurt is caused with the permission of the court.

338. Causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others.

Whoever causes grievous hurt to any person to doing any act so rashly or negligently as to endanger human life, or the personal safety of others, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 2 years, or fine of 1,000 rupees, or both— Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by any Magistrate—Compoundable by the person to whom hurt is caused with the permission of the court.

Next,
Chapter XVI (339-358) of IPC – Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement

Chapter XVI (359-374) of IPC – Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour

Chapter XVI (375-377) of IPC – Sexual Offences (Rape)