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Chapter XVI (299-311) of IPC – Offences Affecting Life

Chapter XVI (312-318) of IPC – Of the Causing of Miscarriage, of Injuries to Unborn Children, of the Exposure of Infants, and of the Concealment of Births

Chapter XVI (319-338) of IPC – Hurt

Bare Acts

Chapter XVI (339-358) of IPC – Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement

Chapter XVI (359-374) of IPC – Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour


Chapter XVI, Section 375-377 of INDIAN PENAL CODE (IPC) – Sexual Offences

375. RAPE.

A man is said to commit “rape” if he-

(a) penetrates his penis, to any extent, into the vagina, mouth, urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or

(b) inserts, to any extent, any object or a part of the body, not being the penis, into the vagina, the urethra or anus of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or

(c) manipulates any part of the body of a woman so as to cause penetration into the vagina, urethra, anus or any part of body of such woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person; or

(d) applies his mouth to the vagina, anus, urethra of a woman or makes her to do so with him or any other person,

under the circumstances falling under any of the following seven descriptions-

Firstly- Against her will.
Secondly- Without her consent.
Thirdly- With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested, in fear of death or of hurt.
Fourthly- With her consent, when the man knows that he is not her husband and that her consent is given because she believes that he is another man to whom she is or believes herself to be lawfully married.
Fifthly- With her consent when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication or the administration by him personally or through another of any stupefying or unwholesome Substance, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.
Sixthly- With or without her consent, when she is under eighteen years of age.
Seventhly- When she is unable to communicate consent.

Explanation 1-
For the purposes of this section, “vagina” shall also include labia majora.

Explanation 2-
Consent means an unequivocal voluntary agreement when the woman by words, gestures or any form of verbal or non-verbal communication, communicates willingness to participate in the specific sexual act;

Provided that a woman who does not physically resist to the act of penetration shall not by the reason only of that fact, be regarded as consenting to the sexual activity.

Exception 1-
A medical procedure or intervention shall not constitute rape.

Exception 2-
Sexual intercourse or sexual acts by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under eighteen years of age, is not rape. (15 years changed to 18 years in October 2017)

COMMENTS
Rape or consensual sex– Intercourse under promise to marry constitutes rape only if from initial stage accused had no intention to keep promise. An accused can be convicted for rape only if the court reaches the conclusion that the intention of the accused was mala fide and that he had clandestine (hidden) motives.
Deepak Gulati v. State of Haryana, AIR 2013 SC 2071

376. Punishment for rape.

(1) Whoever, except in the cases provided for in sub-section (2), commits rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years*, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.
* Earlier it was 7 years. In 2018 it was changed to ten years. Here is the full amendment PDF.

(2) Whoever,-
(a) being a police officer, commits rape-
(i) within the limits of the police station to which such police officer is appointed; or
(ii) in the premises of any station house; or
(iii) on a woman in such police officer’s custody or in the custody of a police officer subordinate to such police officer; or

(b) being a public servant, commits rape on a woman in such public servant’s custody or in the custody of a public servant subordinate to such public servant; or

(c) being a member of the armed forces deployed in an area by the Central or a State Government commits rape in such area; or

(d) being on the management or on the staff of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force or of a women’s or children’s institution, commits rape on any inmate of such jail, remand home, place or institution; or

(e) being on the management or on the staff of a hospital, commits rape on a woman in that hospital; or

(f) being a relative, guardian or teacher of, or a person in a position of trust or authority towards the woman, commits rape on such woman; or

(g) commits rape during communal or sectarian violence; or

(h) commits rape on a woman knowing her to be pregnant; or

(i) commits rape on a woman when she is under sixteen years of age; or [Clause (i) omitted by s. 4,ibid.(w.e.f. 21-4-2018)] Here is the full amendment PDF.

(j) commits rape, on a woman incapable of giving consent; or

(k) being in a position of control or dominance over a woman, commits rape on such woman; or

(l) commits rape on a woman suffering from mental or physical disability; or

(m) while committing rape causes grievous bodily harm or maims or disfigures or endangers the life of a woman; or

(n) commits rape repeatedly on the same woman,

shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation-
For the purposes of this sub-section,-
(a)armed forces” means the naval, military and air forces and includes any member of the Armed Forces constituted under any Jaw for the time being in force, including the paramilitary forces and any auxiliary forces that are under the control of the Central Government!, or the State Government;

(b)hospital” means the precincts of the hospital and includes the precincts of any institution for the reception and treatment of persons during convalescence or of persons requiring medical attention or rehabilitation;

(c)police officer” shall have the same meaning as assigned to the expression “police” under the Police Act, 1861;

(d)women’s or children’s institution” means an institution, whether called an orphanage or a home for neglected women or children or a widow’s home or an institution called by any other name, which is established and maintained for the reception and care of women or children.

(3) Whoever, commits rape on a woman under sixteen years of age shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine:
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:
Provided further that any fine imposed under this sub-section shall be paid to the victim.
[Inserted by Act 22 of 2018, s. 4 (w.e.f. 21-4-2018)]
Here is the full amendment PDF.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Rape.
Punishment-Rigorous imprisonment of not less than 10 years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and with fine- Cognizable-Non-Bailable-Triable by Court of Session.

376A. Punishment for causing death or resulting in persistent vegetative state of victim.

Whoever, commits an offence punishable under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of section 376 and in the course of such commission inflicts an injury which causes the death of the woman or causes the woman to be in a persistent vegetative state, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death.

376AB. Punishment for rape on woman under twelve years of age.

Whoever, commits rape on a woman under twelve years of age shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine or with death:
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation ofthe victim:
Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.
[Inserted by s. 5, ibid., (w.e.f. 21-4-2018)]
Here is the full amendment PDF.

376B. Sexual intercourse by husband upon his wife during separation.

Whoever has sexual intercourse with his own wife, who is living separately, whether under a decree of separation or otherwise, without her consent, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than two years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation-
In this section, “sexual intercourse” shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.

376C. Sexual intercourse by person in authority.

Whoever, being-
(a) in a position of authority or in a fiduciary relationship; or

(b) a public servant; or

(c) superintendent or manager of a jail, remand home or other place of custody established by or under any law for the time being in force, or a women’s or children’s institution; or

(d) on the management of a hospital or being on the staff of a hospital,

abuses such position or fiduciary relationship to induce or seduce any woman either in his custody or under his charge or present in the premises to have sexual intercourse with him, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation 1-
In this section, “sexual intercourse” shall mean any of the acts mentioned in clauses (a) to (d) of section 375.

Explanation 2-
For the purposes of this section, Explanation 1 to section 375 shall also be applicable.

Explanation 3-
Superintendent“, in relation to a jail, remand home or other place of custody or a women’s or children’s institution, includes a person holding any other office in such jail, remand home, place or institution by virtue of which such person can exercise any authority or control over its inmates.

Explanation 4-
The expressions “hospital” and “women’s or children’s institution” shall respectively have the same meaning as in Explanation to sub-section (2) of section 376.

376D. Gang rape.

Where a woman is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than twenty years, but which may extend to life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine:
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:
Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

376DA. Punishment for gang rape on woman under sixteen years of age.

Where a woman under sixteen years of age is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine:
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:
Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

376DB. Punishment for gang rape on woman under twelve years of age.

Where a woman under twelve years of age is raped by one or more persons constituting a group or acting in furtherance of a common intention, each of those persons shall be deemed to have committed the offence of rape and shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and with fine, or with death:
Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses and rehabilitation of the victim:
Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

376E. Punishment for repeat offenders.

Whoever has been previously convicted of an offence punishable under section 376 or section 376A or section 376AB* or section 376D or section 376DA* or section 376DB* and is subsequently convicted of an offence punishable under any of the said sections shall be punished with imprisonment for life which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, or with death.
*Added by amendment in 2018. Here is the full amendment. (88 KB)

Unnatural Offences – IPC

377. Unnatural offences.

Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation-
Penetration is sufficient to constitute the carnal intercourse necessary to the offence described in this section.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years and fine— Cognizable—Non-Bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

You should read this short article on Section 377 that talks about recent decision by the Supreme Court on homosexuality in India (2 minute read)

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CHAPTER XVII (378-382) of IPC – OFFENCES AGAINST PROPERTY

WritingLawIndian Penal Code, 1860Chapter XVI (375-377) of IPC – Sexual Offences (Rape)