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Chapter XVI (299-311) of IPC – Offences Affecting Life

Chapter XVI (312-318) of IPC – Of the Causing of Miscarriage, of Injuries to Unborn Children, of the Exposure of Infants, and of the Concealment of Births

Chapter XVI (319-338) of IPC – Hurt

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Chapter XVI (339-358) of IPC – Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement


Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery and Forced Labour – INDIAN PENAL CODE (IPC)

359. Kidnapping.

Kidnapping is of two kinds: kidnapping from India, and kidnapping from lawful guardianship

360. Kidnapping from India.

Whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of India without the consent of that person, or of some person legally authorised to consent on behalf of that person, is said to kidnap that person from India. 

361. Kidnapping from lawful guardianship.

Whoever takes or entices any minor under sixteen years of age if a male, or under eighteen years of age if a female, or any person of unsound mind, out of the keeping of the lawful guardian of such minor or person of unsound mind, without the consent of such guardian, is said to kidnap such minor or person from lawful guardianship. 

Explanation-
The words “lawful guardian” in this section include any person lawfully entrusted with the care of custody of such minor or other person. 

Exception-
This section does not extend to the act of any person who in good faith believes himself to be the father of an illegitimate child, or who in good faith believes himself to be entitled to lawful custody of such child, unless such act is committed for an immoral or unlawful purpose.

362. Abduction.

Whoever by force compels, or by any deceitful means induces, any person to go from any place, is said to abduct that person.

COMMENTS
It is well known that the ingredients of the two offences—‘kidnapping’ and ‘abduction’— are entirely different. These are two distinct offences;
Abhaya Jena v. State of Orissa, (1997) Crimes 531 (Ori)

363. Punishment for kidnapping.

Whoever kidnaps any person from India or from lawful guardianship, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

363A. Kidnapping or maiming a minor for purposes of begging.

(1) Whoever kidnaps any minor or, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, obtains the custody of the minor, in order that such minor may be employed or used for the purpose of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

(2) Whoever maims any minor in order that such minor can be employed or used for the purposes of begging shall be punishable with imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

(3) Where any person, not being the lawful guardian of a minor, employs or uses such minor for the purposes of begging, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that he kidnapped or otherwise obtained the custody of that minor in order that the minor might be employed or used for the purposes of begging.

(4) In this section,-
(a)begging’ means-
(i) soliciting or receiving alms in a public place, whether under the pretence of singing, dancing, fortune-telling, performing tricks or selling articles or otherwise;
(ii) entering on any private premises for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;
(iii) exposing or exhibiting, with the object of obtaining or extorting alms, any sore, wound, injury, deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal;
(iv) using a minor as an exhibit for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;

(b)minor’ means-
(i) in the case of a male, a person under sixteen years of age; and
(ii) in the case of a female, a person under eighteen years of age.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Para I: Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non- bailable—Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.
Para II: Punishment—Imprisonment for life and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

364. Kidnapping or abducting in order to murder.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be murdered or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being murdered, shall be punished with imprisonment for life or rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. 

Illustrations-
(a) A kidnaps Z from India, intending or knowing it to be likely that Z may be sacrificed to an idol. A has committed the offence defined in this section. 

(b) A forcibly carries or entices B away from his home in order that B may be murdered. A has committed the offence defined in this section. 

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or rigorous imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non- compoundable. 

364A. Kidnapping for ransom, etc.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person or keeps a person in detention after such kidnapping of abduction and threatens to cause death or hurt to such person, or by his conduct gives rise to a reasonable apprehension that such person may be put to death or hurt, or causes hurt or death to such person in order to compel the Government or any foreign State or international inter-governmental organisation or to do or abstain from doing any act or to pay shall be punishable with death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Death, or imprisonment for life and fine—Cognizable—Non- bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable. 

365. Kidnapping or abducting with intent secretly and wrongfully to confine person.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person with intent to cause that person to be secretly and wrongfully confined, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable. 

366. Kidnapping, abducting or inducing woman to compel her marriage, etc.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any woman with intent that she may be compelled, or knowing it to be likely that she will be compelled, to marry any person against her will, or in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or knowing it to be likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine; and whoever, by means of criminal intimidation as defined in this Code or of abuse of authority or any other method of compulsion, induces any woman to go from any place with intent that she may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punishable as aforesaid.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

366A. Procuration of minor girl.

Whoever, by any means whatsoever, induces any minor girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that such girl may be, or knowing that it is likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

366B. Importation of girl from foreign country.

Whoever imports into India from any country outside India or from the State (UT) of Jammu and Kashmir any girl under the age of twenty-one years with intent that she may be, or knowing it to be likely that she will be, forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

367. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous hurt, slavery, etc.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subject to grievous hurt, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

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CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by court of Session—Non-compoundable.

368. Wrongfully concealing or keeping in confinement, kidnapped or abducted person.

Whoever, knowing that any person has been kidnapped or has been abducted, wrongfully conceals or confines such person, shall be punished in the same manner as if he had kidnapped or abducted such person with the same intention or knowledge, or for the same purpose as that with or for which he conceals or detains such person in confinement.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Punishment for kidnapping or abduction—Cognizance—Non- bailable—Triable by court by which the kidnapping or abduction is triable—Non-compoundable.

369. Kidnapping or abducting child under ten years with intent to steal from its person.

Whoever kidnaps or abducts any child under the age of ten years with the intention of taking dishonestly any movable property from the person of such child, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 7 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Magistrate of the first class—Non-compoundable.

370. Trafficking of Person.

(1) Whoever, for the purpose of exploitation, (a) recruits, (b) transports, ( c) harbours, (d) transfers, or (e) receives, a person or persons, by-

(i) using threats, or
(ii) using force, or any other form of coercion, or
(iii) by abduction, or
(iv) by practising fraud, or deception, or
(v) by abuse of power, or
(vi) by inducement, including the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, in order to achieve the consent of any person having control over the person recruited, transported, harboured, transferred or received, commits the offence of trafficking.

Explanations-

(1) The expression “exploitation” shall include any act of physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
(2) The consent of the victim is immaterial in determination of the offence of trafficking.

(2) Whoever commits the offence of trafficking shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

(3) Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one person, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

(4) Where the offence involves the trafficking of a minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

(5) Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than fourteen years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

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(6) If a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking of minor on more than one occasion, then such person shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

(7) When a public servant or a police officer is involved in the trafficking of any person then, such public servant or police officer shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.
[Criminal Law Amendment Act, 2013]

370A. Exploitation of a trafficked person.

(1) Whoever, knowingly or having reason to believe that a minor has been trafficked, engages such minor for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

(2) Whoever, knowingly by or having reason to believe that a person has been trafficked, engages such person for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished With rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Exploitation of a trafficked child– Punishment- Imprisonment of not less than 5 years but which may extend to 7 years and with fine- Cognizable- Non-bailable- Triable by Court of Session.

Exploitation of a trafficked person– Punishment- Imprisonment of not less than 3 years but which may extend to 5 years and with fine- Cognizable- Non-bailable- Triable by Court of Session.

371. Habitual dealing in slaves.

Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for 10 years, and fine— Cognizable—Non-bailable—Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

372. Selling minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.

Whoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwise disposes of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, or knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be employed or used for any such purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall be liable to fine.

Explanation I-
When a female under the age of eighteen years is sold, let for hire, or otherwise disposed of to a prostitute or to any person who keeps or manages a brothel, the person so disposing of such female shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have disposed of her with the intent that she shall be used for the purpose of prostitution.

Explanation II-
For the purposes of this section “illicit intercourse” means sexual intercourse between persons not united by marriage or by any union or tie which, though not amounting to a marriage, is recognised by the personal law or custom of the community to which they belong or, where they belong to different communities, of both such communities, as constituting between them a quasi-marital relation.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

373. Buying minor for purposes of prostitution, etc.

Whoever buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of any person under the age of eighteen years with intent that such person shall at any age be employed or used for the purpose of prostitution or illicit intercourse with any person or for any unlawful and immoral purpose, of knowing it to be likely that such person will at any age be employed or used for any purpose, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Explanation I-
Any prostitute or any person keeping or managing a brothel, who buys, hires or otherwise obtains possession of a female under the age of eighteen years shall, until the contrary is proved, be presumed to have obtained possession of such female with the intent that she shall be used for the purpose of prostitution.

Explanation II-
Illicit intercourse” has the same meaning as in section 372.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 10 years and fine—Cognizable—Non-bailable— Triable by Court of Session—Non-compoundable.

374. Unlawful compulsory labour.

Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCE
Punishment—Imprisonment for 1 year, or fine, or both—Cognizable—Bailable— Triable by any Magistrate—Non-compoundable.

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Chapter XVI (375-377) of IPC – Sexual Offences

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