Role, Significance, and Functions of Governor

The governor is the head of the state. He is elected by the President of India and holds office at the pleasure of the President.

Governor acts as a bridge between union and state. He has to communicate the state’s aspiration to the union as an elder brother and brings issues of national significance at the state level like a postman.


What is Criminal and Civil Contempt of Court - with Example, Punishment, Remedy, Appeal, Limitation, and Latest Case Laws

Any act done with an intention to disrespect or tarnish the image of the court or willful disobedience to any court order, judgement or decree can be defined as contempt of court.

Our Constitution has not precisely defined contempt of court, but according to Article 129, the Supreme Court has the power to punish for its contempt. Article 215 confers comparable powers to High Courts.KEEP READING

Constitutional provisions on Centre State relations

1. Single Citizenship
2. The Centre Can Change the Name And Boundaries Of States
3. Single Unified Judiciary
4. Uniquely In Emergencies
5. Common All India Services
6. Inequality Of Representation In the Council of States
7. Appointment Of Governors
8. The Office Of Comptroller and Auditor General
9. Centralized Electoral Machinery
10. Financial Dependence Of StatesKEEP READING

What is Cooperative and Competitive Federalism

Cooperative federalism means that there should be a mechanism for coordination between the union and the states. Institutions like the national development council, finance commission, and zonal councils have promoted cooperative federalism.

Competitive federalism is a philosophy that promotes competition between the states and the union and between the state governments.KEEP READING

Constitutional History

1. Regulating Act, 1773
2. Pitts India Act, 1784
3. Charter Act, 1813
4. Charter Act, 1833
5. Government of India Act, 1858
6. Indian Council Act, 1861
7. Indian Council Act, 1892
8. Act of 1909 (Minto Morley Reforms)
9. Act of 1919 (Montagu Chelmsford Reforms)
10. Government of India Act, 1935
11. Cripps Mission
12. Cabinet Mission Plan
13. Indian Independence Act, 1947KEEP READING


having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a
and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all FRATERNITY…KEEP READING


The Union and its Territory

Article 1 – Name and territory of the Union.
Article 2 – Admission or establishment of new States.
Article 2A – Sikkim to be associated with the Union.
Article 3 – Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing  States.
Article 4 – Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.KEEP READING



Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
Article 7 – Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
Article 8 – Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
Article 9 – Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
Article 10 – Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.KEEP READING


Fundamental Rights

Article 12 – Definition.
Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Article 14 – Equality before law.
Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
Article 17 – Abolition of Untouchability.
Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
Article 19 – Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.KEEP READING


Directive Principles of State Policy

Article 36 – Definition.
Article 37 – Application of the principles contained in this Part.
Article 38 – State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
Article 39 – Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid.
Article 40 – Organisation of village panchayats.
Article 41 – Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.KEEP READING


Fundamental Duties

51A. Fundamental duties.
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India-
(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;KEEP READING

THE-UNION Constitution of India

The Union

Chapter I – The Executive
Article 52. The President of India.
Article 53. Executive power of the Union.
Article 54. Election of President.
Article 55. Manner of election of President.
Article 56. Term of office of President.
Article 57. Eligibility for re-election.
Article 58. Qualifications for election as President.KEEP READING

Part VI of the Indian Constitution - Article 152 to 237 - The States

The States

Chapter I – General
Article 152 – Definition.

Chapter II – The Executive
Article 153 – Governors of States.
Article 154. Executive power of State.
Article 155 – Appointment of Governor.
Article 156 – Term of office of Governor.
Article 157 – Qualifications for appointment as Governor.KEEP READING



Article 238

The States in Part B of the First Schedule. Repealed by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. with effect from 1-11-1956.

Extra Read:
First of all lets understand that the article 238 of Indian Constitution was repealed in 1956 after the “part B” states were removed and were included as ‘states’ after the 7th Constitutional Amendment, 1956.KEEP READING


The Union Territories

Article 239 – Administration of Union territories.
Article 239A – Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.
Article 239AA – Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
Article 239AB – Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
Article 239B – Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.KEEP READING

Protection of Minorities

This law notes talks about Protection And Safeguard Of Minorities, Case Laws On Minorities Protection, Protection of Linguistic Minorities, and Sachar Committee Report.

The term minority simply refers to the class of people who are different from other sections of society in terms of language, script, religion, culture, and so on. They are less in number in the overall population; that is why there are referred to as minorities.KEEP READING