Muslim law is a part of personal laws or family laws. It is not a codified law. People belonging to Islam are governed through shariyat. While studying, there are many terminologies that are difficult to understand. Most of the terms are in Arab. To help, here is a list of fifty important words, terms, and phrases of Muslim Law with their easy meaning. These words are important for all law exams.
50 Important Terms in Muslim Law
1. Ayyam-e-jahiliya– It refers to the pre-Islamic era.
2. Hejarat– The holy journey from mecca to medina is Hejarat.
3. Islam– The term means submission to the will of God.
4. Qurra– It means “to read.” The word ‘Quran’ has been derived from the word qurra.
5. Sunnat– It means the model behaviour of the Prophet.
6. Sunnat-ul-fail– It implies the conduct of the Prophet.
7. Sunnat-ul-qual– It implies the words said by the Prophet.
8. Sunnat-ul-tuqrir– It implies to the silence of the Prophet.
9. Hadis– It means what Prophet said, did, or allowed is Hadis. The traditions which have been followed for a long time.
10. Fiqh– The term is given to the human interpretation of Muslim Law.
11. Nikah– It means the union of two sexes. It is considered as a civil contract under Muslim Law.
12. Shagir– When the person is below 7 years of age, this stage of life is shagiri. Marriage at this stage is void.
13. Sariri– When the person is between 7 to 15 years of age, this stage of life is sariri. Marriage can be done under guardianship.
14. Bulugh– When the person is above 15 years of age, this stage of life is called Bulugh. A person is free to marry on his will.
15. Khyar-ul-bulugh– It is the right of a boy or girl to repudiate the marriage on attaining puberty. Subject to a condition that marriage has not been consummated.
16. Repudiate– To refuse to accept the marriage.
17. Consanguinity– It means Qurabat. If the parties to the marriage are related to each other through blood relations, then it is void.
18. Affinity– It means Musharat. If the parties to the marriage are related through marriage, then it is void.
19. Fosterage– It means Riza. If the parties to the marriage are related through the foster mother, then it is void.
20. Sahih– A valid marriage is termed as sahih. The marriage which meets all essential requirements of a valid marriage.
21. Batil– A void marriage is termed as Batil. If the marriage is done under prohibited degrees, it is void.
22. Fasid– An irregular marriage is termed as Fasid. Like marrying with the fifth wife, or with a woman undergoing Iddat.
23. Iddat– It means the waiting period. It is performed after the divorce or death of a husband by a woman to ascertain her pregnancy.
24. Mahr– The customary practice of dower is termed as Mahr. It is a sum payable by the husband to the wife at the time of marriage.
25. Talaq– It means divorce. The dissolution of marriage by divorce. Related: 13 Ways of Divorce in Muslims
26. Talaq-e-tafweez– It means when the wife uses her delegated power given by the husband to divorce herself from marriage.
27. Tuhr– It is a period when the woman is free from her menstrual course.
28. Talaq-ul-biddat– It is the pronouncement of “I divorce you” three times. It dissolves the marriage immediately.
29. Ila– Husband’s oath not to perform sexual intercourse with his wife for a period of four months.
30. Zihar– It means to compare the wife with the woman under a prohibited degree of relationship.
31. Mubarat– It is a kind of mutual divorce.
32. Khula– It is the divorce at the request of the wife.
33. Fask– It means to cancel, annul, revoke, abrogate, or abolish the marriage. It is a judicial divorce on the option of the wife.
34. Ikrar-e-Nasab– It means an acknowledgement by the father for his child. Acknowledgement of paternity.
35. Nafaqa– It refers to maintenance. To provide food, shelter, clothing, and other essentials things for livelihood.
36. Kharcha-i-pandan– It means betel box expense. It the expense which a husband gives to her wife for personal needs. It is the absolute property of the wife.
37. Waliyat– The guardianship of a person is termed as waliyat.
38. Wilayat-e-nafs– The guardian of a minor in person and property.
39. Hizanat– The custody of a minor child is termed as hizanat. It may be with the father or mother depending upon circumstances.
40. Hiba– It means a gift without consideration given by a living person to another living person.
41. Hiba-bil-iwaz– It is a gift given by a person to another person in exchange for other gifts. Donor and donee both exchange gifts.
42. Hiba-ba-shartul-iwaz– It is a gift that is given on the condition that the donee will give consideration to the donor.
43. Sadaqah– A gift given or dedicated to God is Sadaqah.
44. Ariyat– When a person transfers the right to use and enjoy the property to the other person for a specific time period is ariyat.
45. Waqf– It is tying up of property in the ownership of God. It is given for religious and charitable purposes.
46. Mutawalli– He is the person who takes care of the waqf property like a manager or supervisor.
47. Ijma– It means consensus or opinion by the persons who have knowledge of the law.
48. Pardanashin– A woman who observes pardah is a pardanashin lady. She is not allowed to meet anyone.
49. Dakhul– It means the consummation of the marriage by the husband and wife.
50. Kitabiya– A woman who follows any scriptural religion.
You will also like to read:
1. Must-know Legal Maxims
2. Important Words of Hindu Law
3. Muta Marriage – A Marriage for Pleasure
4. Important Case Nomenclatures Used in Indian Courts