As India traditionally being a patriarchal society, women are often looked down upon. Women neither belong to the minority class nor the backward class.
There was a need with the passage of time for the formation of the statutory body for which a bill was introduced in the Parliament, namely the National Commission for Women Bill 1990, which resulted in the formation of the National Commission for Women.
Some of the important types of deeds are:
1. Sale Deed.
2. Mortgage Deed.
3. Lease Deed.
4. Gift Deed.
5. General Warranty Deed.
6. Special Warranty Deed.
7. Adoption Deed.
8. Quitclaim Deed.
9. Trust Deed.
10. Court Order Deeds.
11. Fiduciary Deed.
12. Grant Deed.
13. Conveyance Deed.
14. Deed of Power of Attorney.
15. Relinquishment Deed.
Many people during their investments in their lifetime get misled that nominees are real owners, and it often creates confusion due to the regular usage of the word.
The dictionary meaning of the word represents a person who has been officially suggested for a position.
Strictly speaking, a nominee is an act of officially suggesting a person to take care of the properties after death and later pass it on to the legal heirs.
There are ten main types of jurisdiction. They are:
1. Pecuniary Jurisdiction.
2. Territorial Jurisdiction.
3. Subject Matter Jurisdiction.
4. Exclusive Jurisdiction.
5. Concurrent Jurisdiction.
6. Appellate Jurisdiction.
7. Original Jurisdiction.
8. Special Jurisdiction.
9. Legal Jurisdiction.
10. Extending Jurisdiction.
When any informant informs the police about any crime that has occurred, the police, after analysing the case is a cognizable one, registers the FIR and proceeds for investigation, arrests etc. After the investigation is over, the police submit a report to the court called a charge sheet, which forms the basis for the criminal trial.
Now that you understand the definition, let us learn more about FIR and charge sheet under the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973.
No statutory regulations have been provided in the Criminal Procedure Code to determine the nature of an offence as a cognizable or non-cognizable one. However, the code under Schedule I categorises certain offences as cognizable and non-cognizable ones.
Cognizable crimes are heinous in nature which embraces offences like rape, murder, theft, waging war etc. In cognizable cases, the information is given to the nearest police station, which registers the FIR and starts the investigation.
As society is developing at a swift pace, the demand for stricter laws is rising. Laws are made for the safety of society. Still, some anti-social people involve in wasting the time of courts by making false allegations, harassing the innocents by filing false litigations, etc.
Now there is a trend to register false and fabricated FIRs for taking revenge and generating mental fear in the mind of the innocent. The police are bound to register the FIR in all cognizable cases and follow further procedures.
With respect to administrative law, tribunals are referred to those bodies which have quasi-judicial power (not similar to court procedures). They are not like the sub-ordinate courts or superior courts. Quasi-judicial authorities are established under an act of Parliament or of the state legislature to discharge adjudicatory functions.
Our courts are overcrowded with numerous cases. Therefore, for speedy and effective justice, part of the judicial power is delegated to the tribunals.
The 102nd Constitutional Amendment Act introduced the following articles into the Indian Constitution.
> Article 338B: Deals with Structure, Duties and Powers of NCBC (National Commission for Backward Classes).
> Article 342A clause 1: Empowers the President to notify the list of SEBC (Socially Economic and Backward Classes for each State and Union Territory in consultation with the Governor.
> Article 342A clause 2: Empowers the Parliament to amend the Central List.
The Indian Constitution confers three types of jurisdiction to the Supreme Court of India – the country’s apex court. These are:
1. Original Jurisdiction (Article 32),
2. Appellate Jurisdiction (Article 136), and
3. Advisory Jurisdiction (Article 143).
Advisory jurisdiction is mentioned under Article 143, Part V of the Indian Constitution.