The guidelines are as follows:
1. The police officer must take the prior written permission of the superior officer to go out of the state or union territory to carry out the investigation. He can take permission on the phone only in case of urgencies.
2. In cases where the police officer decides to arrest an accused in another state, he must write facts and reasons so as to satisfy why the arrest is necessary. The police officer must attempt to get an arrest or search warrant from the magistrate having jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal, the guarantor of fundamental rights, and the guardian of the Indian Constitution. It becomes essential for Supreme Court to maintain its independence to deliver its judgement without fear or favour.
To ensure the independence of the Supreme Court, it should be free from encroachments, pressure and interference of the executive or legislature.
Rylands and Fletcher lived in a neighbourhood.
Rylands had mines in his land, while Fletcher had a mill on his land.
Fletcher required a huge amount of energy to run the mill, so he decided to construct a reservoir.
To construct the reservoir, independent contractors and engineers were appointed by Fletcher.
No attention was paid to mine shafts while constructing the reservoir.
Section 76 deals with cases where the person under a mistake considers himself to be compelled or bound by law to act in a particular way. Although his act is a crime on the actual condition of the facts.
On the contrary, section 79 deals with cases where a person under the mistake considers himself to be simply justified or excused by the law to act in a particular way.
Evidence comprises anything that may be used to determine the truth of the assertion. The production and presentation of evidence depend on establishing on whom the burden of proof lays.
The judge or the jury decides if the burden of proof has been fulfilled. After it has been established who shall carry the burden of proof, the evidence is foremost gathered, collected and then presented before the court to determine its admissibility.